Krakow is the cradle of the Polish language and literature. Some of the most important Polish and international writers were and are connected with the city, including Joseph Conrad (born Józef Korzeniowski), Stanisław Wyspiański, Konstanty Ildefons Gałczyński, Tadeusz Kantor, Stanisław Lem, Sławomir Mrożek, Adam Zagajewski, and Nobel Prize-winning poets Wisława Szymborska and Czesław Miłosz. It is their influence and the unique literary atmosphere of Krakow that have brought together important and pioneering literary trends.
The first scriptoriums appeared here as early as the 11th century. The first prints in Poland were published in Krakow, first in Latin, and later in Polish as well. What’s more, the city boasts library collections that are unique on a global scale. The most eminent Polish writers and poets have been laid to rest in Krakow, including the Romantic-era national poets Adam Mickiewicz and Juliusz Słowacki. Czesław Miłosz, Sławomir Mrożek and Stanisław Wyspiański are buried in the crypts of two Krakow churches. Krakow is full of quaint secondhand bookshops and well-stocked bookstores, often boasting of centuries-old traditions.
Pic. Grzegorz Ziemiański, www.fotohuta.pl